Fact Sheet 1 - Factsheet in .pdf format
Amur, Morrow & Tatarian Honeysuckle
Lonicera maackii, L. morrowii, L. tatarica
Amur, Morrow and Tatarian honeysuckles are non-native, upright, deciduous shrubs that grow to be 6-15 feet tall. The best way to distinguish these three species are by their leaves and flowers/fruits. Amur honeysuckle has dark green leaves that end in a sharp point at the tip and the underside of the leaf has hair along the veins.
Morrow and Tatarian both have oval, egg-shaped leaves. By contrast, the leaf of Tatarian honeysuckle lacks hair on the underside, while Morrow is consistently hairy on the underside. Amur and Morrow both have white, paired flowers that turn yellow with age while Tatarian is pale pink. The flower peduncles (stems) are also descriptive: Amur has very short, pubescent peduncles (2-4mm), Morrow's are long and pubescent (10-12mm), and Tatarian's are long and glabrous (10-15mm) and all three exhibit a hollow stem in cross-section which can be used to distinguish them from some native honeysuckles.
The fruits are yellow to dark-red berries. Showy pink honeysuckle (L. xbella) is an invasive hybrid of Morrow and Tatanan honeysuckle with showy pink flowers. Shrub bush-honeysuckle (Diervilla lonicera) is native to Ohio and can be distinguished from these non-native species by the solid pith of the stem and yellow to reddish flowers.
These bush honeysuckles are adaptable to a wide range of habitats. They are most commonly found in the understory of woodlands as well as the edges of marshes.
Amur, Morrow and Tatarian honeysuckles are native to China, Korea and Japan. Introduced into the United States in 1846 as ornamental plants, they have escaped cultivation due to high seed production and to the fact their seeds are readily eaten and dispersed by birds. These honeysuckles are distributed throughout Ohio with Amur being more problematic in southwestern Ohio, Morrow in northern Ohio, and Tatarian throughout the state.
These vigorous shrubs shade out native vegetation, particularly in the woodland understory. They are able to out-compete native wildflowers for light and other resources. Bush honeysuckles green up earlier in the spring than most other plants, giving them an advantage over other species. Each produces abundant amounts of seed which are spread by birds and other animals.
The bush honeysuckles in less dense populations can be pulled, making sure that all the roots have been removed. Any remaining roots in the ground are likely to re-sprout. A pulaski, Weed Wrench, or other similar tool may be used to remove the plant from the ground.
For more dense populations, systemic herbicides, such as RoundupÂ®, GlyproÂ®, Garlon 3AÂ®, and Garton 4Â®, are the most effective control. The best methods of application are foliar spray for large populations when there are no desirable species in the vicinity, cut stump treatment for areas with desirable non-target species, and basal bark applications which are effective throughout the year whenever the ground is not frozen. Foliar application should only be used when the outside temperature is above 65Â° F to allow for complete absorption of the chemical. It may also be applied to re-sprouts after cutting. Cut stump treatment with Garlon 4Â® can be applied year-round as long as the ground is not frozen.
There are currently no biological control methods for these honeysuckles.
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION SOURCES:
Bartlow, J., K. Johnson, M. Kertis, T. Remaley, S. Ross, E. Simet, T. Smith, D. Soehn and G.Taylor. 1996. Tennessee Exotic Plant Management Manual. Tennessee Exotic Pest Plant Council.
Converse, Carmen K. 1984. Element Stewardship Abstract for Lonicera spp., Bushy Honeysuckles. The Nature Conservancy.